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【Java基礎】Java開發過程中的常用工具類庫

Java開發過程中的常用工具類庫

Apache Commons類庫

Apache?Commons是一個非常有用的工具包,為解決各種實際的問題提供了通用現成的代碼,不需要我們程序員再重復造輪子。關于這個類庫的詳細介紹可以訪問官網介紹。下面表格列出了部分的工具包。我們平時開發過程中可以根據自己的需要挑選合適的工具包。

Components Description Latest Version Released
BCEL Byte Code Engineering Library - analyze, create, and manipulate Java class files 6.3.1 2019/3/24
BeanUtils Easy-to-use wrappers around the Java reflection and introspection APIs. 1.9.3 2016/9/26
BSF Bean Scripting Framework - interface to scripting languages, including JSR-223 3.1 2010/6/24
Chain Chain of Responsibility pattern implemention. 1.2 2008/6/2
CLI Command Line arguments parser. 1.4 2017/3/9
Codec General encoding/decoding algorithms (for example phonetic, base64, URL). 1.12 2019/2/16
Collections Extends or augments the Java Collections Framework. 4.3 2019/2/5
Compress Defines an API for working with tar, zip and bzip2 files. 1.18 2018/8/16
Configuration Reading of configuration/preferences files in various formats. 2.4 2018/10/29
Crypto A cryptographic library optimized with AES-NI wrapping Openssl or JCE algorithm implementations. 1.0.0 2016/7/22
CSV Component for reading and writing comma separated value files. 1.6 2018/9/25
Daemon Alternative invocation mechanism for unix-daemon-like java code. 1.0.15 2013/4/3
DBCP Database connection pooling services. 2.6.0 2019/2/19
DbUtils JDBC helper library. 1.7 2017/7/20
Digester XML-to-Java-object mapping utility. 3.2 2011/12/13
Email Library for sending e-mail from Java. 1.5 2017/8/1
Exec API for dealing with external process execution and environment management in Java. 1.3 2014/11/6
FileUpload File upload capability for your servlets and web applications. 1.4 2019/1/16
Functor A functor is a function that can be manipulated as an object, or an object representing a single, generic function. 1 2011-??-??
Geometry Space and coordinates. 1 2018-??-??
Imaging (previously called Sanselan) A pure-Java image library. 0.97-incubator 2009/2/20
IO Collection of I/O utilities. 2.6 2017/10/15
JCI Java Compiler Interface 1.1 2013/10/14
JCS Java Caching System 2.2,1 2018/8/23
Jelly XML based scripting and processing engine. 1.0.1 2017/9/27
Jexl Expression language which extends the Expression Language of the JSTL. 3.1 2017/4/14
JXPath Utilities for manipulating Java Beans using the XPath syntax. 1.3 2008/8/14
Lang Provides extra functionality for classes in java.lang. 3.9 2019/4/15
Logging Wrapper around a variety of logging API implementations. 1.2 2014/7/11
Math Lightweight, self-contained mathematics and statistics components. 3.5 2015/4/17
Net Collection of network utilities and protocol implementations. 3.6 2017/2/15
Numbers Number types (complex, quaternion, fraction) and utilities (arrays, combinatorics). 1 2017-??-??
OGNL An Object-Graph Navigation Language 4 2013-??-??
Pool Generic object pooling component. 2.6.2 2019/4/11
Proxy Library for creating dynamic proxies. 1 2008/2/28
RDF Common implementation of RDF 1.1 that could be implemented by systems on the JVM. 0.3.0-incubating 2016/11/15
RNG Implementations of random numbers generators. 1.2 2018/12/12
SCXML An implementation of the State Chart XML specification aimed at creating and maintaining a Java SCXML engine.It is capable of executing a state machine defined using a SCXML document, and abstracts out the environment interfaces. 0.9 2008/12/1
Statistics Statistics. 0.1 ????-??-??
Text Apache Commons Text is a library focused on algorithms working on strings. 1.6 2018/10/16
Validator Framework to define validators and validation rules in an xml file. 1.6 2017/2/21
VFS Virtual File System component for treating files, FTP, SMB, ZIP and such like as a single logical file system. 2.3 2019/2/4
Weaver Provides an easy way to enhance (weave) compiled bytecode. 2 2018/9/7

除了上面表格中的工具包,Apache Common項目還包括以下幾個工具包,其中的http-client是我們平時非常常用的。

  • Cactus: Cactus is a simple test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets, EJBs, Tag Libs, Filters, ...). The intent of Cactus is to lower the cost of writing tests for server-side code.
  • HiveMind: HiveMind is a services and configuration microkernel. HiveMind allows you to create your application using a service oriented architecture.
  • HttpClient 3.x: Framework for working with the client-side of the HTTP protocol.
  • Naming: The Naming subproject will contain common JNDI code along with various JNDI providers.

Guava類庫

Guava工程包含了若干被Google的 Java項目廣泛依賴 的核心庫,例如:集合 [collections] 、緩存 [caching] 、原生類型支持 [primitives support] 、并發庫 [concurrency libraries] 、通用注解 [common annotations] 、字符串處理 [string processing] 、I/O 等等。下面列出Guava工具包中的常用功能點,以便需要的時候查閱使用。

基本工具 [Basic utilities]

  • 使用和避免null:null是模棱兩可的,會引起令人困惑的錯誤,有些時候它讓人很不舒服。很多Guava工具類用快速失敗拒絕null值,而不是盲目地接受。
  • 前置條件: 讓方法中的條件檢查更簡單。
  • 常見Object方法: 簡化Object方法實現,如hashCode()和toString()。
  • 排序: Guava強大的”流暢風格比較器”
  • Throwables:簡化了異常和錯誤的傳播與檢查。

集合[Collections]

Guava對JDK集合的擴展,這是Guava最成熟和為人所知的部分

  • 不可變集合: 用不變的集合進行防御性編程和性能提升。
  • 新集合類型: multisets, multimaps, tables, bidirectional maps等。
  • 強大的集合工具類: 提供java.util.Collections中沒有的集合工具。
  • 擴展工具類:讓實現和擴展集合類變得更容易,比如創建Collection的裝飾器,或實現迭代器。

緩存[Caches]

Guava Cache:本地緩存實現,支持多種緩存過期策略。

函數式風格[Functional idioms]

Guava的函數式支持可以顯著簡化代碼,但請謹慎使用它。

并發[Concurrency]

強大而簡單的抽象,讓編寫正確的并發代碼更簡單

  • ListenableFuture:完成后觸發回調的Future
  • Service框架:抽象可開啟和關閉的服務,幫助你維護服務的狀態邏輯

字符串處理[Strings]

非常有用的字符串工具,包括分割、連接、填充等操作

原生類型[Primitives]

擴展 JDK 未提供的原生類型(如int、char)操作, 包括某些類型的無符號形式

區間[Ranges]

可比較類型的區間API,包括連續和離散類型

I/O

簡化I/O尤其是I/O流和文件的操作,針對Java5和6版本

散列[Hash]

提供比Object.hashCode()更復雜的散列實現,并提供布魯姆過濾器的實現

事件總線[EventBus]

發布-訂閱模式的組件通信,但組件不需要顯式地注冊到其他組件中

數學運算[Math]

優化的、充分測試的數學工具類

反射[Reflection]

Guava 的 Java 反射機制工具類

Spring中的常用工具類

  • FileCopyUtils;
  • WebUtil;

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